Engineering Materials

Comparing some typical properties of common engineering materials like steel, plastics, ceramics and composites

Composites

Material Density
ρ
103 (kg/m3)
Tensile Modulus
E
(GPa)
Tensile Strength
σ
(GPa)
Specific Modulus
E/ρ –
Specific Strength
σ/ρ –
Maximum Service Temperature
(oC)
Short-fiber
Glass-filled epoxy (35%) 1.9 25 0.3 8.26 0.16 80 – 200
Glass-filled polyester (35%) 2.0 15.7 0.13 7.25 0.065 80 – 125
Glass-filled nylon (35%) 1.6 14.5 0.2 8.95 0.12 75 – 110
Unidirectional
S-glass epoxy (45%) 1.8 39.5 0.87 21.8 0.48 80 – 215
Carbon epoxy (61%) 1.6 142 1.73 89.3 1.08 80 – 215
Kevlar epoxy (53%) 1.35 63.6 1.1 47.1 0.81 80 – 215

Metals

Material Density
ρ
103 (kg/m3)
Tensile Modulus
E
(GPa)
Tensile Strength
σ
(GPa)
Specific Modulus
E/ρ –
Specific Strength
σ/ρ –
Maximum Service Temperature
(oC)
Cast Iron, grade 20 7.15 100 0.14 14.3 0.02 230 – 300
Steel, AISI 1045 7.7 – 8.03 205 0.585 26.3 0.073 500 – 650
Aluminium 2045-T4 2.7 73 0.45 27 0.17 150 – 250
Aluminium 6061-T6 2.7 69 0.27 25.5 0.10 150 – 250

Ceramics

Material Density
ρ
103 (kg/m3)
Tensile Modulus
E
(GPa)
Tensile Strength
σ
(GPa)
Specific Modulus
E/ρ –
Specific Strength
σ/ρ –
Maximum Service Temperature
(oC)
Alumina 3.8 350 0.17 92.1 0.045 1425 – 1540
MgO 3.6 205 0.06 56.9 0.017 900 – 1000

Plastics

Material Density
ρ
103 (kg/m3)
Tensile Modulus
E
(GPa)
Tensile Strength
σ
(GPa)
Specific Modulus
E/ρ –
Specific Strength
σ/ρ –
Maximum Service Temperature
(oC)
Nylon 6/6 1.15 2 – 3.6 0.082 2.52 0.071 75 – 100
Polyethylene (HDPE) 0.9 – 1.4 0.18 – 1.6 0.015      
Polypropylene 0.9 – 1.24 1.4 0.033 1.55 0.037 50 – 80
Epoxy 1.25 3.5 0.069 2.8 0.055 80 – 215
Phenolic 1.35 3.0 0.006 2.22 0.004 70 – 120
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